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Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade







Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased


Notes: Arrows on the map show the percentage point change in the share of each group. Counties with a change below one percentage point are not shown. White is non-Hispanic white.

Nearly every county in the United States became more diverse in the last decade as the nation recorded its first drop in the white population in 2020, according to detailed data on race and ethnicity released by the Census Bureau on Thursday. More than a third of the nation now lives in counties where people of color are a majority.

The decline in the white share of the population is a continuation of the country’s decades-long trend. The pattern is also consistent with what demographers have predicted to be a future white minority — when white residents are expected to make up less than half of the U.S. population.

How the population makeup changed in the U.S.

50%WhiteBlackHispanicAsian, American Indian or Pacific Islander19801990200020102020

Notes: Other races are shown in gray. The Census Bureau added a multiracial option in 2000. Data for each group labeled on the chart since then reflect only a single race or ethnicity.

Since 1980, Hispanic and Asian populations have experienced the largest growth, with each group quadrupling its size from 40 years ago. During that time, the growth of the white population has slowed with each decade, increasing about 6 percent since 1980, as the national population grew more than 40 percent.

The white population decreased by more than five million from 2010 to 2020. Still, the share of white residents has gone up in some parts of the country.

City center neighborhoods historically populated by people of color have become increasingly white as residents are priced out by wealthier white newcomers seeking convenient and less expensive housing. About a third of all census tracts in which people of color were a majority in 2010 became more white by 2020. About 2 percent of those tracts turned majority white.

Metro areas where people of color became a majority

White residents became a minority in six major metro areas in 2020: Dallas-Fort Worth, Orlando, Atlanta, Sacramento, New Orleans and Austin.

How the population makeup changed in each metro area

Dallas–Fort Worth

50%WhiteBlackHispanicAsian20102020

Atlanta

WhiteBlackHispanicAsian20102020

Orlando

WhiteBlackHispanicAsian20102020

Sacramento

50%WhiteBlackHispanicAsian20102020

New Orleans

WhiteBlackHispanicAsian20102020

Austin

WhiteBlackHispanicAsian20102020

Notes: Other races, including multiracial, American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander, are shown in gray.

In the Dallas-Forth Worth metro area, Asian residents saw the largest growth of any single race, increasing more than 75 percent from 2010 to 2020. The Asian population rose by nearly the same number as Black residents, though there are still twice as many Black residents.

The city of Plano in Collin County has one of the state’s highest concentrations of residents of Chinese descent and a large Indian population. In the county as a whole, Asians now make up more than 17 percent of the population.






Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color


Notes: Arrows on the map show the percentage point change in the share of each group. Counties with a change below one percentage point are not shown.

The white share of the population in Atlanta grew in historically Black neighborhoods in the city center, where housing speculation and the arrival of many white residents has led to skyrocketing home prices and high eviction rates.

But nearly everywhere else in the Atlanta area, the share of white residents dropped. Clayton County, which includes parts of southeast Atlanta, had one of the country’s largest percentage decreases in white population — a 29 percent drop to 26,000 in 2020 from 36,000 in 2010.

Throughout the metro area, white population growth decreased by nearly 1 percent in the last decade. But the number of Black residents increased by nearly 20 percent.






Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color


Notes: Arrows on the map show the percentage point change in the share of each group. Counties with a change below one percentage point are not shown.

The change in the makeup of the Orlando metro area was primarily caused by a large increase in the number of Hispanic residents. The group grew by more than 58 percent in the past decade, driven largely by migration from Puerto Rico following years of economic crisis and the devastation of Hurricane Maria. The white population grew by only 2 percent.

Among large metros, Orlando had one of the biggest decreases in the share of its white population, which dropped nearly 10 percentage points since 2010.

In Osceola County, which includes cities like St. Cloud and Kissimmee, Hispanic residents now make up more than half of the population.






Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority

people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color


Notes: Arrows on the map show the percentage point change in the share of each group. Counties with a change below one percentage point are not shown.

Like in Atlanta, historically Black neighborhoods in New Orleans saw the largest increase in the share of white residents in the last decade. And in some predominantly Black census tracts between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, the share of white and Black residents reversed in the years since 2010.

Overall, the number of white residents in the New Orleans metro area decreased by nearly 25,000 people, while the black population increased by 15,000. The Hispanic share of the population increased considerably, growing by nearly 55,000 people.






Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color


Notes: Arrows on the map show the percentage point change in the share of each group. Counties with a change below one percentage point are not shown.

In the Austin metro area, Hispanic neighborhoods on the east side of the city had increases in their white populations, while the opposite happened in most other census tracts in the metro area. The bulk of the shift came from an increase in the number of Hispanic residents.

But while it is considerably smaller than the Hispanic population in total, the Asian population in the area has nearly doubled since 2010 — the largest percent increase of any race group in the city.






Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority

people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color


Notes: Arrows on the map show the percentage point change in the share of each group. Counties with a change below one percentage point are not shown.

The Sacramento metro area lost more than 3 percent of its white population in the years since 2010. The Asian and Hispanic populations there each grew by nearly 100,000 people.

The share of people of color rose in more than 95 percent of census tracts. Of those where the white share increased, all but one were in tracts in which people of color are still a majority.






Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority

people of color

Where the Racial Makeup of the U.S. Shifted in the Last Decade

Each arrow is a census tract

Share of white

population increased

Share of people

of color increased

Areas that are majority people of color


Notes: Arrows on the map show the percentage point change in the share of each group. Counties with a change below one percentage point are not shown.

A number of other large metro areas came close to having white residents become a minority, including the Chicago metro area, where people of color now make up just under half of its population. In the Tucson, Ariz., metro area, people of color make up about 49 percent of the total population.

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